Chinese Piano Music: the Role of Composer Chu Wanghua in the Evolution of Modern Piano Traditions in China (the Case of the ‘Sounds of the Temple’ Capriccio Suite)
Palavras-chave:canon technique, guó huà techniques, mirror reprise, national traditions, vertical music elements
Chinese piano music is based on folk songs, Chinese poetry, and the ethnic style, which contribute to the expressiveness of the sound and refinement of the intonation and tonal system. The paper addresses the Chinese piano music and the role of composer Chu Wanghua in shaping contemporary piano traditions, using the ‘Sounds of the Temple’ capriccio suite as an example. Based on the direct method of standardization, the paper determined the significance of the parts of the ‘Sounds of the Temple’ suite. The second part (0.93) is most significant for displaying the piano music, because it involves the use of polyphonic sounds, imitating other instruments. The first part of the suite (0.87) is based on a linear representation of sounds, imitating the sounds of bells. The third part (0.69) centers around the use of slow tempo as well as major tone deviations. Significant elements of the suite (mirror reprise, rhythmic transformation, monotonous repetition of phrases and sounds, application of guó huà techniques, texture elements) were determined on the basis of the measured complexity and harmony of performance, as well as their influence on national traditions. A comparison of performance using standard deviation suggested that the differences were based on monotonous repetition of phrases and sounds (1.07), which is attributed to a greater emphasis on the difficulty of performance than on other parameters. The paper’s practical implications involve the possibility of preserving expressiveness and ethnic elements while playing the piano, based on Chu Wanghua’s ‘Sounds of the Temple’ suite. Further studies might compare the elements that contribute to the expressiveness of performance in the ‘Sounds of the Temple’ suite by Chu Wanghua and ‘Flower Drum’ by Qu Wei.